Skånskere og Jyder

I1 (M253) haplogruppen ser ud til at repræsentere skandinaviske folk godt. Regioner har tendens til at blive identificeret som skandinaviske, hvor mindst 25% af de testede mennesker matcher M253:

  • Sverige (33%+)
  • Norge (25%+)
  • Sjælland (35–40%)
  • Vestlige Finland (25-38%)
  • Fyn (~30%)
  • Jylland (25-30%)
  • Den Tysk Østersøkyst (~26%)

I1 menes at have dannet sig for 25 til 30 tusind år siden. Det gør det alt for gammelt til at have dannet sig i Skandinavien. Danmark blev isfrit for 22 til 17 tusind år siden. Sverige og Norge måtte vente endnu længere.

Således synes det sandsynligt, at I1 dannedes i Centraleuropa i de områder, der i dag groft er identificeret som Tyskland. Regioner som Sachsen og Bayern udviser i dag I1-tætheder på over 15%. De højere tætheder af I1 i Skandinavien skyldes måske relativ isolering gennem årtusinder.

Vi skulle ikke antage, at I1 var den eneste Y-DNA-type post-glacial Skandinavien, men det ser ud til at have været den mest almindelige.

En stor underklasse af I1, der er identificeret som specifikt skandinavisk, er I-L22. Dette er sandsynligvis hjemmehørende i Skandinavien. Det dannedes for omkring 3900 år siden, godt efter at Skandinavien for det meste var isfrit.

Når man ser på YFull-databasen, ser det ud til, at proportionerne mellem de skandinaviske lande er ens, når I1 og I-L22 sammenlignes. Danmark tegner sig for 6% af de skandinaviske prøver med hensyn til både I1 og I-L22. Sverige (75%) og Norge (18%) har også de samme forhold mellem I1 og I-L22. Det ser ud til, at Danmarks lille procentdel i vid udstrækning skyldes en lav deltagelsesrate blandt danskerne.

Det faktum, at de to forhold matcher, betyder, at Danmark er lige så meget L22 som det er I1. Det indikerer også, at L22 er en transskandinavisk klade.

Flere grupper med I1-DNA ser ud til at have været i Danmark i tusinder af år. Selvom Danmark ikke nyder et stort prøvesæt, viser de danske prøver, der findes, stadig I1-haplogruppens dybe historie i Danmark.

Det har almindeligvis været antaget, at danskerne stammer fra den skandinaviske halvø og derefter invaderede den danske øgruppe og Jylland omkring 500 e.v.t., og udviste andre folk, der muligvis havde inkluderet de angli (engelske) og jyder, der vandrede til Storbritannien på omtrent samme tid. Moderne stipendium har rejst tvivl om de gamle beretninger, som denne invationshypotese var baseret på.

Det er interessant, at en af ​​de ældre grupper, der er anført ovenfor, I-Z2040, er en I-Z58-underklasse, en vestgermansk gruppe, der er ret almindelig i England, så her ser vi et link til Tyskland og de folk, der bosatte sig i Storbritannien.

Z58+ is chiefly West Germanic, with a very strong presence in Germany, the Low Countries and Britain. It is also found to a lower extent in Nordic countries and throughout Continental Europe. — Eupedia: Haplogroup I1

I Danmark er I-Z58 næsten lige så almindelig som I-L22. Fire af de otte danske prøver af I-Z2040 er fra enten Jylland eller Syddanmark.

Skønt udbredelsen af ​​I-L22 i Danmark ser ud til at vise, at regionen i dag kendt som Danmark var skandinavisk længe før år 500 e.v.t., synes der stadig at være en forbindelse med Nedre Tyskland, især i Jylland.

Selvom Danmark muligvis har været skandinavisk længe før juterne rejste til Storbritannien, skulle vi ikke være sikre på, at en skånsk invasion ikke fandt sted. Der er tegn på indvandring til Jylland fra Skåneland inden for de sidste 2000 år.

  • I-S14887a — Skåne, Blekinge og Halland til Jylland siden 400 e.Kr.
  • I-Y20287 — Skåne og Halland til Jylland siden 200 e.Kr.

Disse er begge I-L22-underklasser. Mit eget faderlig DNA matcher I-Y20287, så hvis der var en skånsk invasion eller migration omkring 500 e.v.t., kan mine forfædre meget vel have spillet en rolle i det.

Mit dansk projekt

Hej, mine imaginære danske venner! Fra og med i dag planlægger jeg at genoplive min blog, men jeg vil skriver på dansk kun. Dette projekts formål er, at jeg skal øve mig på skrevet dansk.

Min første oplevelse med dansk var at lytte til min bedstefar synge ride ride ranke, mens jeg hoppede på hans knæ. Jeg fik at vide om dette. Jeg var for ung til at huske.

Bedstefar Jensen blev lammet af et slagtilfælde, da jeg var en dreng. Jeg huske ikke, at jeg nogensinde har talt med ham.

Næste gang jeg stødte på det danske sprog, søgte jeg efter min bedstefars danske familie i danske kirkebøger og folketællinger. Jeg fandt dem omkring tyve år senere.

Jeg lærte lidt dansk i 2019, mens jeg forberedte mig på mit første besøg i Danmark. Under besøget mødte jeg mine danske næstfætre. Jeg kan ikke huske, at jeg nogensinde har modtaget sådan en velkomst!

I denne blog håber jeg at skrive om Danmarks historie og geografi som en øvelse i at lære disse emner, men også som en øvelse i at lære dansk.

Vulture, by Robinson Jeffers

In Igneous Range, the vulture is the firebird, a symbol of ancient Iran, and a symbol of transcendence.

To be eaten by that beak and become part of him, to share those wings and those eyes …

Published posthumously in 1963.
Jeffers Literary Properties
Stanford University Press
Reading © 2017 Kaweah

For more discussion on this and other Jeffers poems, see Robinson Jeffers: Fire from Stone.

The Summit Redwood, by Robinson Jeffers

There is an outlaw thread in Igneous Range, so one of the Robinson Jeffers poems that it reminds me of is the Summit Redwood:

First published in 1928
Reading by Kaweah

A companion lyric to Cawdor and a splendid fire-poem in its own right, The Summit Redwood has never been selected for any anthology, possibly because it appears to put “people of color” in a bad light, or perhaps because its style appears to be inconsistent. I happen to see it as a marvelous portrait of kindred defiants: a red tree and a red man.
Redwoods don’t often grow on summits, particularly on the coast, but often enough for the purposes of this poem. They are shaken by lightning commonly enough. Continue reading

To the Story-Tellers, by Robinson Jeffers

I wrote most of Igneous Range before I had any idea I was writing a Jeffers novel, thematically anyway: violence, vultures, redwoods, defiance, and above all fire. A repeating theme is the dominance of the subconscious, and there is also a sense of insanity.

Oh, and there’s genocide as well.

Toward the end of the story, Armen encounters a crazy old man in a cave who preaches the insanity of man. He does not mean that man is evil; only that man is not rational:

There are lots of intelligent animals, but there is only one mad animal.

Dip Room Blues

Read more about this in Men Without Fear, available at Amazon.

After missing a year of high school to a life-threatening illness, Fred Tarrant would need an extra year to earn his high school diploma. Not a great student to begin with, he found himself falling just short of the credits he needed to graduate. Unwilling to trade discrete favors with one of his teachers, he returned home in 1946, sans diploma, to Saratoga Springs to work at Tarrant Manufacturing. He started in the factory dip room, alone, hooking machine frames onto an electric lift and lowering them into huge vats of paint and thinner, afterward sliding each frame over a thirty-foot drip pan. He did this over and over while, unbeknownst to him, the lift threw sparks here and there, trying its best to set the place on fire.

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Mr. Wrestling

Read more about this in Men Without Fear, available at Amazon.

For many boys at the New York Institute, the man that made self-respect achievable was one Clyde L. Downs of Downsville, Maryland.

When Clyde Downs first came to the Institute in 1929 at age 21, the Institute did not have a wrestling program, and Downs did not come as a wrestling coach. He appears to have been a general physical education coach, engaging students in a variety of activities.

Overbrook School in Philadelphia has been credited with the first wrestling program for blind kids, started in 1929,[3] the very same year that NYI hired Clyde Downs. The Institute would sometimes compete against Overbrook. The Philadelphia-based program was an all-white program, while the New York Institute was integrated. When the two teams met, the Institute’s non-white players were not able to participate, so the Institute was subjected to a handicap. But it seems that in the early years Overbrook had a genuinely superior program. A February 1937 story in Time Magazine describes a 22–5 beating handed to the Institute by Overbrook. By 1942, however, New York Institute students and graduates began to appear at or near the top of regional and national tournaments to a degree that Overbrook never had.

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The Strike of ’43

Read more about this in Men Without Fear, available at Amazon.

When it came to John Jensen’s character, his failures could be as telling as his successes. Fred Tarrant recalls a night when his buddy John was heading out on a big date. Fred, though blind, could see better than John, so John had him inspect his outfit. Fred was impressed with John’s stunning white suit and red boutonnière, and sent John off into the New York night with his full approval. John returned later that night with his white suit splattered with grease, soil, and blood. He had fallen off a train platform en route to his date!

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